This study examines the role of second- and third-order barriers to classroom computing integration among fourth- and fifth-grade teachers in an urban, low-income school district (i.e., where computing resources are limited, or first-order barriers are high). We examine the impact of teachers' (N = 114) computer anxiety, computer attitudes, and computer feature comfort (i.e., second-order barriers) on their intention to use computer features in their classrooms. We also assess the role of teachers’ participation in training sessions aimed at fostering their design thinking (i.e., third-order barriers). Our results indicate that computer feature comfort and summer institute attendance are the strongest predictors of computing integration in cases where first-order barriers are high. Findings also suggest that tackling third-order barriers may help teachers overcome second-order barriers. Implications for future training interventions are discussed.
Makki, T. W., O'Neal, L. J., Cotten, S. R. & Rikard, R. V. (2018). When first-order barriers are high: A comparison of second- and third-order barriers to classroom computing integration. Computers & Education, 120, 90-97.